In early 2006, during work on an unrelated research and development project, a unique carbon material was discovered that was ultimately named Graphonyx Carbon Nano Onions (CNOs). At the time of discovery, it was considered strictly a carbon byproduct of the overall research process. In 2006, because of the lack of sophisticated Nano Research Equipment available to characterize the material, substantial time was expended to achieve identification of this new form of carbon. Through inquiries with a number of university laboratories one was located that had sufficient lab equipment to analyze and provide a preliminary and early stage identification. The university concluded that the material was a novel spherical nano carbon that could have significant impact in the field of Carbon Nanotechnology.
This discovery of a unique material fostered a new project to determine the characteristics of this material. Extensive research and development began immediately on the material being created, as well as constructing better equipment and methods for material production/manufacturing. Early on it was realized that creating this material was not only extremely challenging, but the identification or characterization was even more so. At that time, there were a very limited number of nano research laboratories available that could be utilized to do characterization and functionalization work with this material, on the nano scale.
As research continued, it became apparent that the biggest overall advancements being made in nano technology was in the expansion of the number of universities that have created nano research laboratories and having equipped them with some of the most advanced nano research equipment on the market today. This vastly improved instrumentation was greatly needed to characterize and functionalize nano materials. These advancements combined with a well-trained staff of students and chemists that can operate this highly sophisticated equipment, as well as interpret the results, has resulted in a more accelerated pace in the research and development phase of nano technology.
With the research support of some of these ever evolving nano research facilities (11 different university, two federal and five private sector nano research laboratories) many of the Graphonyx material’s characteristics have been identified. This along with the many avenues taken to functionalize this material (minimal compared to the functional pathways discussed in the literature by Bertelmess et al) has led to numerous and interesting discoveries for possible future applications. With the assistance of the above-mentioned research facilities, the material was characterized as a unique allotrope of carbon referred to in the nano technology research field as Carbon Nano Onions (CNOs).
During the period from 2006 to 2017, the Graphonyx material has been improved to provide better quality, purity and volume production. It is believed, because of its three dimensional quasi-spherical form, stability in vivo, heat resistance, biological inertness and having no sharp edges that would react adversely to the cells of the human body, that the toxicity of the material would be substantially less, or non existent, in comparison to other allotropes of carbon. The toxicity that is associated with other types of nano carbon ( carbon nano tubes or graphene) material which have either an asbestos-like form, sharp edges, or extraneous catalyst metals respectively, are not present in the Graphonyx material.
Except for some pro bono support rendered by a couple of nano research laboratories, the necessary characterization, functionalization and manufacturing work that was done, proved to be quite expensive. This expense, as well as the entire expense of this company’s operations, has been born by private investors. No government money has been received or requested. The company put in place to oversee, operate, market and produce this material, was named Graphitic Nano Onions LLC (GNO).
Because of non-compete, non-disclosure contracts with all research and development entities, information that can be disclosed is limited, depending on the particular projects. However, over the past few years, valuable information has been acquired that, in some cases, can be made available to interested parties. If you have a question and it is proprietary, you will be told so, however, if it can be answered without invading confidentially, or I.P. rights, our technology experts or chemists will be happy to address your question, either by e-mail or telephone.