Lubricity Research

ASTM LUBRICITY TESTING

During early research and  development, GNO explored  a number of avenues to discover possible application/uses for it's Graphonyx™ material,  one of which was its use as a lubricant. The spherical characteristic of Graphonyx™ resembles ball bearings, with pi clouds orbitals on the exterior, like highly lubricative  graphite.  It is believed, that because of its three dimensional quasi-spherical form, stability in vivo, heat resistance, Graphonyx™, can have many applications in the lubrication field.

Before professional testing was initiated, a regimen of what we termed “backyard” testing was performed to test Graphonyx's™ lubrication properties. One of the first tests involved a 2-cycle weed blower engine. The results proved to be very positive. A number of other simple additive tests were performed: smoking auto engines were rendered “non-smoking”, powerless diesel engines regained their horsepower.

Based on the these results,  the Graphonyx™ material was submitted for professional testing and documentation. The petroleum department of the prestigious Southwest Research Institute, San Antonio, TX, was selected to perform a series of objective tests as to the lubrication properties of Graphonyx™ material.

Samples of an off-the-shelf, SEA certified motor oil were prepared for testing. Three control groups of the motor oil were prepared: three samples of a .5% solution, three of a 1% solution, and three of a 3% solution. (These mixtures were selected based on best estimates to provide a reasonable range) Each solution was tested using approved ASTM  procedures.

The ASTM testing Covered:

D5183, Coefficient of Friction:  The important final numbers, for the Coefficient of friction, concern “incipient seizure”

D3233A Falex and Vee-Block:  The Falex and Vee-block test concern “load Factors”, a combination of pressures and friction.
D2783 Extreme pressure Four-ball:  The important final numbers for the Extreme pressure four-ball test, concern “wear index load”, Weld point”, and Last Non seizure Load”.

In almost all of the testing, the .5 % dilution performed the lowest, followed by the 3 %. The standout, and superior results delivered were from the 1 % dilution.

For instance, the ASTM D2783, Extreme Pressure Four-Ball, test on the three solutions where the true load for the .5 % was 1572, compared to the true load of the off-the-shelf motor oil of 1876. The .5% solution performed less than the off-the-shelf oil. The 3% solution true load was 1948 ,which was better than both the .5% solution and the off-the-shelf oil. The 1% solution bettered the other 3 with a true load of 2050. Almost all other tests followed these basic test results. The results of the 1% solution's in motor oil were best of all.

The results of almost all other tests were similar, showing that the 1% solution provided a significant increase in lubricity. The one  percent solution increased the incipient seizure point by 13%, the weld-point by 20%, and last non-seizure load  by 20%.

After achieving the results reflected above, further tests were conducted to see how this 1%  dilution would perform with other types of lubricants. Gear oil, ATF oil, and 2-cycle engine oil were selected to be tested. There was a 14% increase in “lubricity” with the AFT oil; the gear oil test was inconclusive, probably due to poor mixing with such dense oil, and the two cycle oil did not show any differences in this  particular test.